本論文主要探討「少年Pi的奇幻漂流」符合神話英雄的冒險行徑。理論是根據神話學大師坎伯所著的「千面英雄」。此書蒐羅世界各文化的神話傳說,歸納出英雄冒險的相似軌跡分成三部分:啟程,啟蒙,及回歸。英雄得到某種外在的召喚,離開熟悉的家鄉出發前往陌生的領域,在此期間他必須經歷各種磨難考驗,所幸有外在的神祕力量保護而生存下來,並且得到心靈的成長。最後英雄通過試煉回返家園,把冒險得來的智慧分享給世人。此類英雄的範圍,包含屠龍的勇士甚至如佛陀及基督之類的智者。

「少年Pi的奇幻漂流」是Yann Martel所寫的奇幻小說,內容敘述16歲的印度少年Pi,在舉家移民加拿大的途中遭遇沈船。他靠著信仰,在救生艇上漂流227天後奇蹟生還,唯一的同伴是原先動物園內飼養的老虎。Pi的故事吻合神話英雄的三階段冒險。搭船前往加拿大,是英雄的啟程。他所信仰的三個宗教是外在的助力,他的啟蒙及帶回人世的禮物,是對神更堅定的信仰及推翻科學實證的客觀真理。

本研究重新發掘坎伯的神話英雄理論,引用它來檢視Pi的冒險,以期增加此小說的深度,同時也證明神話英雄並非過時的理論,它仍然可以啟發無限的創作靈感。本文分三部分書寫,以呼應英雄的三階段冒險。套用神話英雄的架構來分析「少年Pi的奇幻漂流」,可以證明它不是一般膚淺的劫後求生的故事。它深具意義之處,在於它是神話英雄冒險的現代縮影,也是探討信仰的成長小說。

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水仙花神話解釋一朵水邊美麗之花的由來,「自戀狂」一詞由此神話而生,在藝術、文學及心理學等領域激盪出豐碩的臆想。雖然「自戀狂」在西方的評論中多屬負面,本文試圖從佛法的觀點解讀此神話,給予它不同的視野。佛法從中發掘到世人生死輪迴之苦。而解脫的可能性,在於精神的超越,轉化個體成為互攝共生的存在。本文分三部分,輪迴、業果及互攝共生。第一部分探討Narcissus和其他角色所承受的苦難。他們的生死輪迴,意指面對外境時,不由自主的情緒反應。第二部分研究苦的原因,分析造成痛苦的各種因素。第三部分闡釋此神話中的變形和互攝共生之關聯。佛鏡反射出水仙花神話獨特的意義光譜,翻轉此悲情故事,使其具有正向的意涵。

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Siddhartha is a 1922 novelette by Hermann Hesse, a German-Swiss poet and novelist awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1946. It explores the spiritual quest of an Indian young man named Siddhartha during the time of the Gautama Buddha. Lyrical and philosophical, the book was influential during the 1960s as it rediscovered Oriental wisdom as an antidote to mechanistic civilization. In a certain sense, Siddhartha is a reflection of Hesse’s yearning for deliverance from the bondage of individuality. However, this keen searching doesn’t always meet with positive response in academia. The objections include Hess as an unintellectual guru, or Siddhartha as a false portrayal of Buddhism combined with Western individualism.

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Birdman, or The Unexpected Virtue of Ignorance, is an acclaimed American black comedy film winning the 2014 Academy Awards for Best Picture, Best Director, Best Original Screenplay, and Best Cinematography. Despite its genre as a comedy, it arouses such turbulent emotions as pity and fear much like a tragedy. It’s not just a story about a washed-up superhero trying to regain his power. Rather, it’s a mirror of every one of us struggling to be relevant in our time, a projection of the universal fear that we don’t exist.

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「the grand budapest hotel 電影」的圖片搜尋結果

There are still faint glimmers of civilization left in this barbaric slaughterhouse that was once known as humanity  

The best quote in the film, also a thematic sentence, conveys the importance of our inner value in creating beauty and order out of the chaos of human life. Amazingly, so heavy a message can be delivered through such a lighthearted tone of the film. To me, no better words can describe the film than “entertainingly significant.” It keeps me in high spirits for the rest part of the day after watching it. In memory of this delightful experience so that it will leave some traces in my life, I write down what it is all about. Basically, it is an appealing artwork featuring a balanced structure, picturesque scenes, and thrilling suspense. But most significantly, it touches the big philosophical question---the meaning of life.    

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「sisyphus stone」的圖片搜尋結果

 

 

 

Sisyphus Myth Redefined: Richard Taylor’s “The Meaning of Life”

 

Introduction

The ancient myth of Sisyphus is a paradigm of a meaningless life featuring pointlessness and futility. However, Richard Taylor gives this myth a twist, interpreting it from a new angle. He argues that Sisyphus’ life can have meaning on the condition that he has a “strange and irrational impulse “to roll stones, however bizarre this impulse may be. Also, if the stones rolling back from the mountaintop can be used to build a beautiful temple, then, Sisyphus’ labor doesn’t come to nothing. Like the glimmering light in the darkness of human existence, Taylor’s viewpoints provide an existentialist leap for those suffering from the meaninglessness of their life.

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 「romance」的圖片搜尋結果

 

Prologue

It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife.

 

The classic quote from Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice never dies. It finds numerous incarnations in romance throughout the world. The universal appeal of romance lies in its depiction of a utopian world of love, which is passionate, eternal, and most importantly, faithful. In this phenomenal world of inconstancy and decay, the perfect state in romance offers a vicarious satisfaction for the disappointed souls, however temporary it is.

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每當教材提及阿米許 (Amish) 文化,就想到 1985 年的 證人 」。 這部影片的主軸除了英雄主義以外,對邊緣的次文化也多有著墨,是不錯的教學影片。剛正不阿的警官對上貪腐的上司,最後邪不勝正,雖說是公式般的定律,但可以滿足現實生活中對正義的渴求,這是英雄片永遠存在的理由,一如浪漫愛情片,替代性的滿足大眾對永恆不朽愛情的嚮往。

 

片中呈現的 Amish 文化,自然樸質,是現代科技文明的反襯及反省。從服裝到家居,單純的白、黑、藍色調所表達的不僅是清教徒的自律嚴謹,更是對抗資本主義物質崇拜的一種姿態。手作的家具及食物,讓人和生存環境有了密切的聯結,不再有都會的疏離感。另外,把個人的價值,定位在對團體的貢獻上,也是避免疏離的好選擇。片中有一幕特別強調社群生活的凝聚力,男人們合力為一對新人建穀倉,女人小孩們則編織或送食物供大家享用。互助合作的生活模式大大降低了因個人主義所帶來的孤寂感,這點值得深思。在利益他人的過程中才能彰顯自己生命的價值,不管是東方的佛教或西方的耶教,對於此點,都有相同的論述。

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It’s a truth universally acknowledged that election in Taiwan is nothing more than a melodrama full of tears, sound and fury, signifying nothing.

 

Election in Taiwan is a carnival festivity; the hierarchy of high and low, rich and poor is temporarily debunked when candidates implore electorates to give them a vote. The common populace enjoys a transitory delusion of their power, knowing that after the festivity, everything will be restored to its former state; the high and low, the rich and poor will resume their respective roles.

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本篇文章的目的在介紹「北非諜影」這部電影,為何多年來一直屹立不搖,成為美國人心目中經典中的經典。它的魅力在哪裡? 以下引述維基百科對它的註解: 「「北非諜影」是一部1942年的美國愛情電影,世界史上最成功的經典電影之一。本片榮獲1944年奧斯卡的最佳影片、最佳導演,和最佳改編劇本獎。這部電影的角色、劇情、以及主題曲 都成為了一種文化標誌。2007年美國編劇協會公佈影史「最偉大的101部電影劇本」名單,由「北非諜影」奪冠。」

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