旅行的藝術》是英倫才子艾倫・狄波頓於2002年的作品。這位才思敏捷、善用哲學角度解讀日常的作者,繼《擁抱似水年華》之後,帶領讀者經歷奇妙的旅行經驗。此書鞭辟入裡探討旅行的心理因素及帶來的生命意義,絕對是哲學及文學的饗宴,非關飲食與景點的實質引薦。書中刻意採英雄冒險之結構,從出發、啟蒙到回歸,帶給我們視覺及心靈的絕佳遐想。作者旅行的範圍橫掃機場、高速公路休息站、阿姆斯特丹、馬德里、英格蘭湖區、西奈沙漠、普羅旺斯等,最後回到他的家鄉--英國倫敦。他在每個停駐點,導入和當地有深刻連結的作家或藝術家。寫到阿姆斯特丹的異國風情,他安排福樓拜當嚮導。描繪英格蘭湖區的美麗寧靜,他請出英國浪漫詩人華茲華斯。要傳遞西奈沙漠的雄偉遼闊,他呼喚聖經舊約中的約伯。而普羅旺斯的最佳代言,非梵谷莫屬。

旅行的藝術》彷彿是一部迷你又另類的文學及藝術史。沒有紀年及紀事,卻有作家和藝術家們在當地所經歷的幽微心識。文學史紀載人、事、時、地、物等事實,而艾倫・狄波頓娓娓道來福樓拜如何唾棄法國中產階級的虛矯,進而崇拜駱駝的堅毅及優雅! 遊歷詩人華茲華斯筆下的田園風光時,他不忘闡釋其詩作及親近自然之理念,深入探討為何大自然能啟發美德,矯正都市生活的扭曲墮落。哲學的嚴肅議題,在他獨特又饒富趣味的剖析下,變得生動易懂。從引領期盼到敗興而歸的心理層次,旅行道盡多少人間事! 旅行的嚴肅性,在於它可成為人類思想的催生劑。新地方引發新思想,宏觀的思想,較易在快速移動的車、船、飛機上被啟發,而流動的風景,易促成自我內心的對話:

Journeys are the midwives of thought. Few places are more conducive to internal conversations than a moving plane, ship or train. There is an almost quaint correlation between what is in front of our eyes and the thoughts we are able to have in our heads: large thoughts at times requiring large views, new thoughts new places. Introspective reflections which are liable to stall are helped along by the flow of the landscape.

人終究脫離不了感官的刺激。居家的平凡無奇以及固定的家具,總限制了一些想像和視野,於是旅行成為自我突破及潛能探索的同義詞。

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本論文主要探討「少年Pi的奇幻漂流」符合神話英雄的冒險行徑。理論是根據神話學大師坎伯所著的「千面英雄」。此書蒐羅世界各文化的神話傳說,歸納出英雄冒險的相似軌跡分成三部分:啟程,啟蒙,及回歸。英雄得到某種外在的召喚,離開熟悉的家鄉出發前往陌生的領域,在此期間他必須經歷各種磨難考驗,所幸有外在的神祕力量保護而生存下來,並且得到心靈的成長。最後英雄通過試煉回返家園,把冒險得來的智慧分享給世人。此類英雄的範圍,包含屠龍的勇士甚至如佛陀及基督之類的智者。

「少年Pi的奇幻漂流」是Yann Martel所寫的奇幻小說,內容敘述16歲的印度少年Pi,在舉家移民加拿大的途中遭遇沈船。他靠著信仰,在救生艇上漂流227天後奇蹟生還,唯一的同伴是原先動物園內飼養的老虎。Pi的故事吻合神話英雄的三階段冒險。搭船前往加拿大,是英雄的啟程。他所信仰的三個宗教是外在的助力,他的啟蒙及帶回人世的禮物,是對神更堅定的信仰及推翻科學實證的客觀真理。

本研究重新發掘坎伯的神話英雄理論,引用它來檢視Pi的冒險,以期增加此小說的深度,同時也證明神話英雄並非過時的理論,它仍然可以啟發無限的創作靈感。本文分三部分書寫,以呼應英雄的三階段冒險。套用神話英雄的架構來分析「少年Pi的奇幻漂流」,可以證明它不是一般膚淺的劫後求生的故事。它深具意義之處,在於它是神話英雄冒險的現代縮影,也是探討信仰的成長小說。

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Siddhartha is a 1922 novelette by Hermann Hesse, a German-Swiss poet and novelist awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1946. It explores the spiritual quest of an Indian young man named Siddhartha during the time of the Gautama Buddha. Lyrical and philosophical, the book was influential during the 1960s as it rediscovered Oriental wisdom as an antidote to mechanistic civilization. In a certain sense, Siddhartha is a reflection of Hesse’s yearning for deliverance from the bondage of individuality. However, this keen searching doesn’t always meet with positive response in academia. The objections include Hess as an unintellectual guru, or Siddhartha as a false portrayal of Buddhism combined with Western individualism.

        Almost one hundred years after its publication, is it still significant as it was in the last century? For spiritual seekers, different approaches to interpreting it yield rich fruits to taste and digest. We can read it as the spiritual journey of a mythological hero. Or, it is an allegory on human life as a whole from Buddhist perspective. Moreover, it is an illustration of Zen insight on life tinged with postmodern philosophy.        

Siddhartha can be read as an archetypal hero’s quest, with the theory based on Joseph Campbell’s The Hero with a Thousand Faces and The Power of Myth. On one hand, Siddhartha’s journey conforms to the structure of the traditional hero’s adventure. It’s a cycle involving a going and a returning. On the other hand, his experiences represent the sufferings and redemption common to humanity. The enlightenment he got benefits all mankind, transcending the distinction of age, race or gender.   

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Birdman, or The Unexpected Virtue of Ignorance, is an acclaimed American black comedy film winning the 2014 Academy Awards for Best Picture, Best Director, Best Original Screenplay, and Best Cinematography. Despite its genre as a comedy, it arouses such turbulent emotions as pity and fear much like a tragedy. It’s not just a story about a washed-up superhero trying to regain his power. Rather, it’s a mirror of every one of us struggling to be relevant in our time, a projection of the universal fear that we don’t exist.

 

Life Meaning

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「the grand budapest hotel 電影」的圖片搜尋結果

There are still faint glimmers of civilization left in this barbaric slaughterhouse that was once known as humanity  

The best quote in the film, also a thematic sentence, conveys the importance of our inner value in creating beauty and order out of the chaos of human life. Amazingly, so heavy a message can be delivered through such a lighthearted tone of the film. To me, no better words can describe the film than “entertainingly significant.” It keeps me in high spirits for the rest part of the day after watching it. In memory of this delightful experience so that it will leave some traces in my life, I write down what it is all about. Basically, it is an appealing artwork featuring a balanced structure, picturesque scenes, and thrilling suspense. But most significantly, it touches the big philosophical question---the meaning of life.    

 

Prologue

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「sisyphus stone」的圖片搜尋結果

 

 

 

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 「romance」的圖片搜尋結果

 

Prologue

It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife.

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每當教材提及阿米許 (Amish) 文化,就想到 1985 年的 證人 」。 這部影片的主軸除了英雄主義以外,對邊緣的次文化也多有著墨,是不錯的教學影片。剛正不阿的警官對上貪腐的上司,最後邪不勝正,雖說是公式般的定律,但可以滿足現實生活中對正義的渴求,這是英雄片永遠存在的理由,一如浪漫愛情片,替代性的滿足大眾對永恆不朽愛情的嚮往。

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It’s a truth universally acknowledged that election in Taiwan is nothing more than a melodrama full of tears, sound and fury, signifying nothing.

 

Election in Taiwan is a carnival festivity; the hierarchy of high and low, rich and poor is temporarily debunked when candidates implore electorates to give them a vote. The common populace enjoys a transitory delusion of their power, knowing that after the festivity, everything will be restored to its former state; the high and low, the rich and poor will resume their respective roles.

 

Election in Taiwan is a Roman style of vomiting, very much like the quarrel between lovers as illustrated in Roland Barthes’ Lovers’s Discourses: “I tickle my uvula, (I rouse myself to contestation), I vomit (a flood of wounding arguments), and then, quite calmly, I begin eating again (207). The candidates adopt the role of lovers, keeping swallowing and regurgitating their wounds. They spin, unwind and weave new accusations each day until the end of election.

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本篇文章的目的在介紹「北非諜影」這部電影,為何多年來一直屹立不搖,成為美國人心目中經典中的經典。它的魅力在哪裡? 以下引述維基百科對它的註解: 「「北非諜影」是一部1942年的美國愛情電影,世界史上最成功的經典電影之一。本片榮獲1944年奧斯卡的最佳影片、最佳導演,和最佳改編劇本獎。這部電影的角色、劇情、以及主題曲 都成為了一種文化標誌。2007年美國編劇協會公佈影史「最偉大的101部電影劇本」名單,由「北非諜影」奪冠。」

 

儘管1940年代電影工業的技術沒有現在的華麗炫目,「北非諜影」的內容影響深遠,可說是無數好萊塢電影的原型(prototype),尤其在愛國和愛情兩種精神元素上。總體來說,它是美國精神的代表。故事的歷史背景在二次世界大戰初期,仍屬法國傀儡政權統治的摩洛哥。男主角Rick所開設的咖啡館是投奔自由者唯一的希望,在那裏可以拿到合法的離境證明,繼而前往美國,逃離納粹的壓迫。所以美國是歐洲人避難的天堂,是自由的代名詞,本片的基調落在美國這老大哥,可以保護其它國家受迫害者,幫助他們圓夢,讓他們免於恐懼。追逐美國夢的主題永遠是電影人「政治正確」的抉擇。本片最鼓舞人心的一幕,在於聚集咖啡館的群眾,齊唱法語歌對抗德軍的德語歌,政治現實的挫敗在當下得到精神上的勝利。納粹極權與自由民權的抗爭,在睿智勇敢的Rick協助下,自由的一方獲勝,也暗示美國所崇尚的民主精神不死,是全世界的依靠。

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