Introduction:

Life of Pi「少年P的奇幻漂流」是李安導演的最新3D作品,預定11月在台灣上映。本文要探討的是原著小說中的主題,如封面所寫:一位擁有三種信仰的印度男孩,一隻450磅重的孟加拉虎,一場船難,一艘救生艇,以及太平洋。乍看之下,它是海上版的魯賓遜漂流記,或浩劫重生之類的電影,一個人獨自存活於災難之後,靠著毅力、智慧及信仰,度過重重難關重回人世。相較於魯賓遜在荒島耕種,自力謀生並對抗野人,少年Pi在太平洋上只靠救生艇維生,再加一隻老虎的威脅,情勢更是艱難。兩者在孤立的環境中都有一個主要同伴,不管是人是虎,這充分說明人無法完全孤立而存活。馴服者與被馴服者的關係是主與僕,兩者間尊卑之意識型態在魯賓遜中被合理化,但在Pi中卻另有深刻的反省。儘管劇情的發展結構一致------船難發生,主角存活,勇敢對抗惡劣環境,最終得救,但我試著以佛家的思想角度來讀少年Pi, 卻有另外一番體悟。

I. The essence of life: drifting uncontrollably

少年Pi漂流大海,其意象很容易和佛家思想連結,即人的一生如漂流生死海,隨波逐流,一切全由業力主宰並不自由。Pi在海上的漂流正是此相狀。他沒有力量主宰自己的方向,只能任由洋流擺布:”What was the point of plotting a course if I couldn’t act on it? So I drifted. Winds and currents decided where I went.”

一般人的生命也是如此,生下來就被大環境所牽引,受時代思潮的影響,對值遇的人事物做出各種判斷抉擇,表面看來這是自由,但實際上是業力所牽引,讓我們遇上了某些境界,這境界非我們能作主,例如出生及衰亡就是我們不能自主的境界,一切依因緣合和而成,沒有一個真正的我這個主體,所謂我只是在特定環境下,某種因緣成熟後的結果,本身沒有自性與實性,我的存在是一種漂流的狀態,在強大的業力吸引下,生存於各種時空中,接受不同的文化刺激,學習不同的事物,並擔負不同的社會責任及義務。就精神上而言,這是不自由的。就肉體而言,生老病死更是非我們能自主的。飢餓可以使人殘酷,任意殺生不覺愧咎不生憐憫;肉體可以戰勝精神,吃飽才有好心情,吃東西甚至不須像人,有什麼吃什麼,儘管心在沉痛的吶喊,但是在飢餓侵逼下,狼吞虎嚥的程度只能和動物一樣。這種種都說明了人受制於外在的物質環境,是多麼的不自由:

“When your own life is threatened, your sense of empathy is blunted by a terrible, selfish hunger for survival.” (151)

“It was frightening, the extent to which a full belly made for a good mood. The one would follow the other measure for measure. So much food and water, so much good mood. It was such a terribly fickle existence. I was at the mercy of turtle meat for smiles. “(269)

“How low I had sunk the day I noticed, with a pinching of the heart, that I ate like an animal, that this noisy, frantic, unchewing wolfing-down of mine was exactly the way Richard Parker ate. “ (284)

II. Aspects of suffering in life

Pi在生死海中漂流,經歷了佛家所說的病、死、愛別離、怨憎會及求不得等苦。病苦者如他皮膚受海水侵蝕而潰爛的疼痛,短暫失明,長期飢餓缺水無法行走等。死苦者如他曾歷瀕臨彌留時的幻覺及虛脫。這兩種屬於肉體上的苦,我們不難體會。愛別離是他痛失親人後的孤寂感,這是精神上的折磨,一想到自己失去的親人,悲傷隨之而來。原本該屬於自己的幸福,在無常的命運擺佈下,一切化為烏有,那種椎心之痛勝過水淹或車撞:

Oncoming death is terrible enough, but worse still is oncoming death with time to spare, time in which all the happiness that might have been yours becomes clear to you. You see with utter lucidity all that you are losing. The sight brings on an oppressive sadness that no car about to hit you or water about to drown you can match. (186)

求不得是他從等待獲救,到等不到的失望及絕望。怨憎會是老虎和他亦敵亦友的關係,也是最值得探討的情結。老虎是最致命的敵人,卻也是在漂流過程中唯一相伴的生物。雖然剛開始被老虎吞噬的恐懼如影隨形,但沒有這個敵人,Pi撐不過這兩百多天的挑戰。最致命的敵人反倒給了他平靜及目的,所以敵/我,馴服/被馴服,主/僕之間的對立,在真正的大苦來臨時,界線開始模糊而意義也開始動搖。

It was Richard Parker who calmed me down. It is the irony of this story that the one who scared me witless to start with was the very same who brought me peace, purpose. (204)

敵人是推動生命的力量,「怨憎會」帶來痛苦,但同時也是激起生命鬥志的原動力。沒了敵人等於沒了奮鬥的目標,與其面對寂寥和絕望,不如想辦法和敵人周旋,讓生命有個目的。在馴服老虎的過程中,Pi必須多次忍受牠的攻擊反抗,他不氣餒亦不屈服,深知要生存只有馴服老虎一途。他給老虎食物和水,並區隔彼此的領域,井水不犯河水。老虎這個怨敵讓Pi的心思忙碌起來,想著如何對抗牠而活下去,對自己的悲慘境遇和家人的思念之情得以減緩:

A part of me did not want Richard Parker to die at all, because if he died I would be left alone with despair, a foe even more formidable than a tiger. He kept me from thinking too much about my family and my tragic circumstances. He pushed me to go on living. . . . It’s the plain truth: without Richard Parker, I wouldn’t be alive today to tell you my story. (207)

「怨憎會」是生命必經之苦,但苦可以轉為樂,端賴心境的調適。把怨敵看成學習突破自我的契機,怨敵就成了生命中最好的助伴。反觀和親愛之人相聚似乎是生命中最樂之事,但執持此樂卻成日後痛苦之因。當生命中的無常到來時,親愛之人勢必被迫分離,如果不能放下對親愛之人的思念想望,生命會如地獄般痛苦: “Despair was a heavy blackness that let no light in or out. It was a hell beyond expression. “ (263)

老虎這個怨敵逼迫Pi要活在當下,不能執著過去的歡樂或妄想未來的願景,只有解決當下生存的困境才是最真實的事情。這點給了我們很好的啟示。大多數的我們並不是活在當下,我們不是活在過去就是想著未來,很少駐足於當下的這一刻,去體會覺察自己的心相是什麼。觀察自己在吃飯穿衣時的當下狀態就可得知,我們對這些事物本身往往心不在焉,想的總是吃飯穿衣以外的事。Pi的海上漂流,讓他全神貫注在生存這件事上,所以他身體忙碌著,心也沒了空閒想別的: “The feeling of busyness was profoundly satisfying; I hadn’t thought at all about my plight or myself.” (242)

所以活在當下是解決苦難的良法,因為活在當下就會忘了時間的流逝,而時間感總讓人恐慌:”I survivied because I made a point of forgetting . . . . time is an illusion that only makes us pant. I survived because I forgot even the very notion of time. “(242)

佛法對於人間的苦,觀察細微,除了上述的苦以外,還有一種名為「壞苦」之苦。意即我們通常快樂的感受,並非真正的樂,其實質是苦。世間透過感官得到的快樂感受,不會越多越增長,實際上是多了反成苦。所謂樂受,是因為我們感到匱乏,繼而產生欲求,再透過外境的刺激而得到暫時的滿足。樂無恆常性亦無實性,只是苦的暫時解脫,一旦過多則崩壞,故名「壞苦」。Pi的經歷充分印證了「壞苦」的形相。例如白天烈日當空,他看著一望無際的汪洋,刺眼又惶恐;熱氣逼人,想要潑灑清涼的海水在身上。白天時想要晚上降臨,但晚上真的來臨,他又覺得寒冷並且有壓迫感,開始渴望白晝的溫暖。太熱時因口乾想要雨水來滋潤;雨下多了怕被淹又想變乾。人永遠在兩極間擺盪,自己作不了主。透過感官產生的欲求永遠無法滿足,因為它的本質是苦。被熱逼迫難受所以想清涼,但涼的感受是相對於熱受的暫時解脫,它並無實性,所以多了便成苦,才會冷久了又想變熱。

To be a castaway is to be caught up in a grim and exhausting opposites. When it is light, the openness of the sea is blinding and frightening. When it is dark, the darkness is claustrophobic. . . . When it is day, you are hot and wish to be cool and dream of ice cream and pour sea water on yourself. When it is night, you are cold and wish to be warm and dream of hot curries and wrap yourself in blankets. When it is hot, you are parched and wish to be wet. When it rains, you are nearly drowned and wish to be dry. (273)

III. Faith as a salvation

Pi經歷了上述種種痛苦,對神的信念不曾改變。他對印度教、基督教、回教三種宗教都感興趣,認為各種宗教所信奉的神為愛而存在,而生存的目的也是愛,雖然我們無法即刻清晰的看見神對我們的愛,但是這份愛卻是恆久不變的: “The founding principle of existence is what we call love, which works itself out sometimes not clearly, not cleanly, not immediately, nonetheless ineluctably. “ (80) 在苦難的當下,我們會質疑神的存在,我們很難相信自己所受的苦是有特別的目的及意義的。大多數的人面臨痛苦時,詛咒神明,背棄原先的信念,沉溺於憤怒絕望的無力感中不可自拔。但Pi不是。他是另一個約伯(Job),在身心受創後,仍對神的愛充滿信心,每日祈求神的加持而終獲救贖,雖然過程中經歷了心情的起伏,有怨懟有絕望,但凡夫者誰能免除這些情緒呢? 敞開自己的心靈,放掉對苦受的執著,深信神的愛永遠存在,只是不以自己習慣的模式顯現,這就是「少年Pi的奇幻漂流」這本書要傳達的核心思想: “Faith in God is an opening up, a letting go, a deep trust, a free act of love---but sometimes it was so hard to love. Sometimes my heart was sinking so fast with anger, desolation and weariness. “(263)

Conclusion:

以佛家看這大千世界,能獲得人身的機會如爪上塵,而各種生物數量之多如大地土。得到人身才有修行的可能,所以要珍惜生命,發揮愛的力量,利益他人的同時也利益自己。Pi堅持活下來,是對生命的尊重,值得我們借鏡:

Some of us give up on life with only a resigned sigh. Others fight a little, then lose hope. Still others---and I am one of those---never give up. We fight to the very end. It’s not a question of courage. It’s something constitutional, an inability to let go. (186)

另外,相信神因愛而存在,能幫助我們走出困境。相反的,選擇懷疑就像選擇「不動」為一種交通工具,在人生道路上無法幫助我們採取任何實質的行動,只會讓自己困在某個境界走不出來:

To choose doubt as a philosophy of life is akin to choosing immobility as a means of transportation. (36)

創作者介紹

Holly's Secret Garden

holly 發表在 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(0) 人氣()