李安於1995年執導的電影「理性與感性」,改編自19世紀珍奧斯丁的原著小說,當年榮獲最佳改編劇本獎,由女主角艾瑪湯普遜(Emma Thompson)撰寫。電影中的對白精確掌握小說的精髓,以雋永的語言,深刻剖析世事人情,溫和敦厚中不乏一針見血的批判。影評家總認為改拍自經典小說的電影,吃力不討好,因為影像無法詮釋文字的無盡意蘊。但「理性與感性」這部電影,卻獲得一致的讚賞,咸認為它不減損原作的精彩,珍奧斯丁地下有知,也會感到滿意。本文列舉電影中代表理性與感性的對話並詮釋其意涵,一窺經典小說的迷人殿堂。

Sense Sensibility

 

 

MR DASHWOOD: A romantic poet with flashing eyes and empty pockets?(像浪漫詩人般,有熱情的雙眸和羞澀的阮囊嗎?)

***Mr. Dashwood在嘲笑太太和二女兒不切實際的幻想

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

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ELINOR: I do not attempt to deny that I think very highly of him that I greatly esteem that I like him.(我不想否認我很尊敬他,甚至喜歡他)

 

 

 

 

 

 

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ELINOR: I am by no means assured of his regard for me. . . . But even were he to feel such a preference, I think we should be foolish to assume that there would not be many obstacles to his choosing a woman of no rank who cannot afford to buy sugar...(我完全無法確定他對我是否有情。但即使他對我有好感,願意選擇我這樣沒社會地位,連糖也買不起的女人,我們也不該蠢到以為這樣的選擇不會遇到重重的障礙。

 ELINOR: In such a situation, Mamma, it is perhaps better to use one's head.(現在這種情況,也許用腦袋比較好)

***依Elinor之見,愛情不能超然獨立於社會經濟體系之外,它必須接受社會價值觀的考驗,再多情的人也無法自絕於社會的大環境下,終究須屈服於生計的基本需求之下。

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ELINOR: Good work, Marianne! You have covered all forms of poetry; another meeting will ascertain his views on nature and romantic attachments and then you will have nothing left to talk about and the acquaintanceship will be over.

(妳表現真好呀,和他談遍了各種詩歌。下次見面想必會談到他對大自然及愛情的想法,然後你們的話題將終結,連同這段情誼也告吹。)

ELINOR: No, but Mr Willoughby can be in no doubt of your enthusiasm for him. (不是要你這樣。問題在於Willoughby對妳的熱情會絲毫無疑。)

 

 

ELINOR: No particular reason, Marianne, only that we know so little of him—(不為特別的理由,只因我們對他所知太少。)

 

 

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

 

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ELINOR: Edward made his promise a long time ago, long before he met me. Though he may harbour some regret, I believe he will be happy in the knowledge that he did his duty and kept his word. After all - after all that is bewitching in the idea of one's happiness depending entirely on one person, it is not always possible. We must accept. Edward will marry Lucy - and you and I will go home.(Edward很早以前,早在遇見我之前就以許下承諾。雖然他可能有些後悔,但我相信他會快樂,因他知道自己善盡職責信守諾言。認為幸福端賴於一個人的這種想法,終將陷人於迷亂中。我們要接受事實,Edward將和Lucy結婚,你我回家去。

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

  

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ELINOR: Poor Willoughby. He will always regret you. (Willoughby會後悔沒有選擇妳)

MARIANNE: But does it follow that, had he chosen me, he would have been content?----He would have had a wife he loved but no money--and might soon have learned to rank the demands of his pocket-book far above the demands of his heart. (但選擇了我之後他就會滿足嗎? 他將會有愛妻但沒有錢。也許很快的,他口袋的需求將遠超過心的需求。)

MARIANNE: My illness has made me consider the past. I saw in my own behaviour nothing but imprudence--and worse. I was insolent and unjust to everyone—(我的病讓我反省過去。我察覺自己的作為一無是處,只能用輕率魯莽來形容,更糟的是,我對所有人既無禮又欠公平。)

***Marianne大病過後終於懂得反省,替他人著想,不再全然以自我為中心。許多年輕人都像她,活在自我的世界,努力追逐自己的夢想,無視於他人的需求。只有在經歷巨大的苦痛後,才能覺察到自我膨脹的禍害,才懂得珍惜身邊真正重要的東西。

MRS DASHWOOD: Marianne is sure to find her storybook hero. (Marianne一定可以找到她的理想情人)

  

  

  

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MARINNE: Can the ardour of the soul really be satisfied with such polite, concealed affections? To love is to burn, to be on fire, all made of passion, of adoration, of sacrifice! (熱切的靈魂怎能滿足於溫吞掩飾的感情呢? 愛是燃燒的火焰,是全然的熱情、崇拜及犧牲!)

***Marinne認為愛的本質像火,充滿光與熱,不容含蓄委婉的表達方式。 

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MARINNE: I require only what any young woman of taste should--- a man who sings well, dances admirably, rides bravely, reads with passion and whose tastes agree in every point with my own. (我要的男人和一般有品味的女人一樣,他要能歌能舞,騎術精湛、熱情地朗讀、各種品味都與我相當。)

***Marinne是少女情懷的最佳代表,情人必須允文允武,才華洋溢最重要。口袋有沒有錢不重要。 

 

  

  

MARIANNE: Esteem him! Like him! Use those insipid words again and I shall leave the room this instant! (尊敬! 喜歡! 你再用這種不慍不火的字眼我可要馬上離開了!) 

***感性和理性對愛的表現方式截然不同。感性者認為愛是強烈的情感,要表現出來讓對方知道;理性者認為愛包含著尊敬,是內心默默的喜歡。在時間的考驗下,似乎後者較能持久!

 

 

 

 

   

MRS DASHWOOD: But Elinor--your heart must tell you—(可是妳的心一定可以告訴妳他是否愛妳!)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MARIANNE: I suppose I have erred against decorum. I should have been dull and spiritless and talked only of the weather, or the state of the roads.

(我想我是僭越了禮節。我應該表現出很無趣又無精打采的樣子,只談天氣和路況就好!)

 

MARIANNE: Why should he doubt it? Why should I hide my regard?(他何必要疑? 我何必要掩飾情感?)

 

MARIANNE: But time alone does not determine intimacy. Seven years would be insufficient to make some people acquainted with each other and seven days are more than enough for others.(但親密感不是單憑時間就能建立起來。有些人用七年的時間也還無法認識彼此;而對有些人來講,七天都還嫌多呢!)  

MARIANNE: I feel I know Mr. Willoughby well already. If I had weaker, more shallow feelings perhaps I could conceal them, as you do—(我覺得我已經夠了解Willoughby,假如我的情感能更微薄淡然的話,我才能像你一樣掩飾。)

***這段姊妹對話充分章顯理性和感性的衝突。矜持的姐姐認為對不熟識的心儀之人,應該保持一定的距離,太早交心可能最後會受傷。但感性的妹妹認為心的感覺最重要,認識的時間不是問題。有人一見鍾情,有人不管見多久都鍾不了情。 

  

  
 
 
  
MARIANNE: Always resignation 
and acceptance!Always prudence
and honour and duty! Elinor, 
where is your heart?
(老是放棄和接受事實嗎?永遠保持謹慎、
維護榮譽和責任嗎? 妳的心在哪裡呢?)
**感性的心永遠容不下禮教、榮譽、
責任等信念。既然這些都是違背心的聲音,
為何要遵守?理性的心卻願意持守這些,
因為這些是維持和諧社會的必要條件。
個人永遠是要依賴群體而生存的。
幸福不在於兩人快樂就好;
幸福在於兩人所處的環境和諧安樂。
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MARIANNE: Love is not love Which alters when it alteration finds / Or bends with the remover to remove: 0, no! it is an ever-fixed mark / That looks on tempests and is never shaken...(會變動遷移的愛不是真愛;真愛永固不變,迎視暴風不動搖)

**此段引自莎士比亞的十四行詩,Marianne經歷情傷後讀出的詩行,最能代表其感性的心。像一般的理想主義者,感性的人堅持世間有恆常不變的事物,不隨客觀環境變動,像地老天荒的愛情。無奈物質終究是戰勝了精神,Marianne也只能從詩行中尋求慰藉了。 

 

 

 

 

 

理性與感性這兩個特質,由Dashwood家的兩個姊妹Elinor和Marinne代表。妹妹Marinne熱情奔放;姊姊Elinor內斂含蓄。姊妹間的互動對話,表現出理性和感性之間的對立及相貌,最後的結局是妹妹由感性的一邊轉向為理性,姊妹皆有好的歸宿。筆者認為妹妹的轉變是一種隱喻。感性和理性是人的一生要經歷的兩種心境,年輕的時候自我意識高漲,不計代價追逐夢想,經過歲月的洗禮,才懂得自省,能夠忍讓節制,為他人著想。年少輕狂的妹妹是年輕的我們;穩重自持的姐姐是歷世練心過後的我們。兩者先後在生命中出現,缺一不可。片中姐姐在病危的妹妹床前,曾說過這麼一句:“I can’t do without you!”沒有前者,生命缺乏慷慨激昂的熱情;沒有後者,生命的快速列車會有出軌的危險。兩者必須在生命中占一定的地位,互相交融、消抵過後,才能成就一曲澎派激昂、低沉雄渾的生命之歌。一味的熱情喧囂,那是刺耳的噪音;一味的退讓壓抑,卻是惱人的的悲鳴!

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